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  • The Influence of G-CSF Addition to Antibiotic Treatment: RESULTS

This study contained five different groups of animals. Survival rates at the 120th hour were 100% in groups SAG, SA and C. The rate was determined as 20% for group SG, and the mean duration of survival following inoculation was 14.25 ± 2.12 hours. In group S, all rats were dead by the end of the 94th hour (100%), and the mean survival level was 29.1 ± 30.9 hours. Comparison of the survival rates, obtained through Kaplan Meier analysis, revealed statistically significant differences among all groups (log rank test 51.59, df=4, p=0.0000) and between the SAG and SG groups (log rank test 13.31, dfM, p=0.0003). No statistically significant difference was observed between the SG and S groups (log rank test 0.22, df=l, p-0.6386) (log rank test 45.92, df=4, p=0.00004).

Table 2. Peripheral leukocyte counts (PLC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) at the commencement of the experiment and at the 12th, 36th, 60th and 90th hours
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Commencement 12th time         hour

36th hour 60th hour

90th Commencement hour        time

12th hour 36th hour 60th hour 90th hour
Leukocyte

Leukocyte Leukocyte Leukocyte Leukocyte     ANC

ANC ANC ANC ANC

Group SAG

6,700­11,100 4,500­32,600

*, +

13,200­58,700

с ,?, ??

11,900-35,325

7,800­23,968

85­603 27­847 646­2,289

d,§,§§

465­1,756 358­990

Group SA

5,800­11,000 3,900­22,200

**, ++

5,700­19,700

§§

5,870­15,780

4,766­11,100

124­456 92­845 145­1,142

e,§§

101­967 95­675

Group SG

6,700­11,100 8,800­19,600

a,***, +++

17,400­18,400 13,200­13,900

8,976­10,110

110­586 180­741

b, ***

643­710 210­686 195­490

Group S

6,600­11,400 3,200­7,800

t

4,400­6,300 146­610 43­486

g

50­127

Group С

7,990­9,893 8,576­8,965 8,200­9,874 7,760­8,995

7,224­8,863

302­351 300­387 311­397 331­368 312­364
a p=0.004 vs. commencement time; b p=0.004 vs. commencement time; с p= 0.004 vs. commencement time; d p= 0.004 vs. commencement time; e p=0.028 vs. commencement time; t p=0.004 vs. commencement time; g p=0.004 vs. commencement time; * pO.OOl vs. group S; ** p=0.01 vs. group S; *** p=0.0001 vs. group S; + p=0.04 vs. group C; ++ p=0.01 vs. group C; +++ p=0.01 vs. group C; ? p=0.004 vs. group SA; ?? p=0.001 vs. group C; § p=0.005 vs. group SA; §§ pO.OOOl vs. group С

Figure 1. The peripheric leukocyte counts (PLC) of the groups after infection at commencement

Figure 1. The peripheric leukocyte counts (PLC) of the groups after infection at commencement and at the 12th, 36th, 60th and 90th hours

PLC and ANC results at the commencement of the experiment and at the 12th, 36th, 60th and 90th hours, together with the statistically minimum-maximum values and comparisons of the groups, are given in Table 2 and Figures 1 and 2. As shown in the Table 2, significant increases from the baseline values were observed in PLC and ANC values in the SG group at the 12th hour. In the SAG group, PLC and ANC values increased at the 36th hour. In the SA group, ANC level increased statistically significant at the 36th hour only. In group S, a significant decrease was determined in PLC and ANC values at the 12th hour. Comparison of the groups with regard to PLC and ANC values revealed a significant difference among the the SAG, SA and SG groups on the one hand, compared with the S and С groups on the other, at the 12th hour. PLC and ANC values were significantly different when groups SAG and SA were compared with group С at the 36th hour. The PLC and ANC values reached their highest levels at the 36th hour in the SAG group and at the 60th hour in the SA group.
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Figure 2. The absolute neutrophil counts

Figure 2. The absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) of the groups after infection at commencement and at the 12th, 36th, 60th and 90th hours

At histopathologic examination of the lung specimens, groups SAG and С were evaluated as grade 1, group SA as grade 2, group SG as grade 3 and group S as grade 4 (Table 3). In groups SAG and C, no inflammatory cells were found within the alveoli, and the alveolar interstitium displayed a normal thickness (Figures 3D and E). There were no significant light microscopic differences between the lungs in groups SAG or C. In group S, massive infiltration of inflammatory cells and diffuse hemorrhage in almost the entire pulmonary tissue were observed. The pulmonary architecture was also severely damaged along with thickened alveolar septa (Figure ЗА). In groups SG and SA, pulmonary architecture was preserved and infiltration of inflammatory cells and hemorrhage were scarce. Inflammatory cells in group SG were more profound compared with the level in group SA (Figures 3B and C).
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Figure 3. Photomicrographs of lung tissues

Figure 3. Photomicrographs of lung tissues C

Figure 3. Photomicrographs of lung tissues (Hematoxylin-eosin X20). S group demonstrating thickened and congested alveolar walls, intraalveolar fluid and edema accumulation, and significant neutrophil sequestration (A). Representative section from the SG group demonstrating fewer thickened alveolar walls, less intraalveolar edema and fluid and moderate neutrophil sequestration compared with the S group (B). SA group demonstrating an even greater reduction in alveolar wall thickening, the amount of intraalveolar fluid and edema compared with the SG group (C). In group SAG, pulmonary histology is close to normal (D). Normal pulmonary histology in group С (E).

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