• 14
    Feb
  • STROKE PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT HYPERTENSION: RESULTS

Demographic and Factors (Table 1)

The mean age of hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients was 62.3 ± 10.4 and 59.1 ± 12.5 years (p=0.064), respectively. Women comprised 54% of the hypertensive and 41% of the non-hypertensive patients (p=0.030). The mean education of hypertensives was 11.1 ±3.1 compared to 11.7 ± 2.9 of non-hypertensives (p=0.024). A history of diabetes was identified in 41% and 25% of patients with and without htn, respectively (p=0.007). 41% of the hypertensives were classified as having a history of hypercholesterolemia compared to 32% of non-hypertensives (p=0.19). Of the 1012 patients identified as having htn, 11% had suffered a previous myocardial infarction compared to 8% of non-hypertensives (p=0.51); 13% of hypertensives compared with 7% of non-hypertensives had angina pectoris (p=0.13); 6% vs. 1% had a diagnosis of congestive heart failure (p=0.18); 2% vs. 0% had a history of atrial fibrillation (p=0.62); 2% vs. 4% had valvular heart disease (p=0.23) and 5% vs. 5% had leg claudication (p=0.77); 4% of hypertensives vs. 3% of non-hypertensives had previous cardiac surgery (p=0.74); and 1% vs. 0% had previous carotid endarterectomy (p=1.00). Peripheral arterial vascular surgery and thoracic or abdominal surgery was noted among 2% vs. 0% and 3% vs. 1% of hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients, respectively (p=0.39, 1.00). Some 37% of hypertensive vs. 41% of non-hypertensive patients exercised at least two times per week and enough to work up a sweat (p=0.49), and 41% vs. 38% had a family history of stroke (p=0.32).

Cigarette smoking was classified as never in 38%, former smoker in 25% and current in 37% of hypertensive patients, while non-hypertensives were classified as 20%, 24% and 55%, respectively (p=0.001). Of the hypertensive patients, 89% reported no or occasional alcohol use; 7% reported regular or daily use; and 3% reported heavy use compared to 85%, 14% and 1%, respectively, in the non-hypertensive group (p=0.21). 26% of hypertensives and 18% of non-hypertensives had a previous history of stroke (p=0.13). 8% vs. 8% of patients in the two groups had a previous history of TIA (p=0.95). canadian pharmacy viagra

Table 1. DEMOGRAPHICS AND CARDIOVASCULAR FACTORS AMONG HYPERTENSIVES AND NON-HYPERTENSIVESa

Factor Hypertensives Non-hypertensives P-value
(n=1012) (n=74)
Age (yrs) 0.064*
Mean 62.3 ± 10.4 59.1 ± 12.5
Median 62 59
Range 33-85 28-79
Women 543 (54) 30 (41) 0.030
Mean Household Income 0.20
<$5,000 160 (16) 9(11)
$5,000 – $9,999 222 (22) 10 (14)
$10,000 – $14,999 122 (12) 8(11)
$15,000 – $19,999 62 (6) 2(3)
$20,000 – $29,999 87 (9) 10 (14)
$30,000 – $39,999 56 (6) 6(8)
$40,000 – $49,999 38 (4) 6(8)
$50,000 – $99,999 41 (4) 5(7)
>$100,000 7(1) 0(0)
Unknown 217 (22) 18 (25)
Education (yrs) 0.024
Mean 11.1 ± 3.1 11.7 ± 2.9
Median 12 12
Range 0-23 3-18
Body Mass Index 29.9 ± 7 28.3 ± 5.6 0.15
407 (41) 18 (25) 0.007
Hypercholesterolemia 365 (41) 22 (32) 0.19
Myocardial infarction 106 (11) 6(8) 0.51
Angina Pectoris 129 (13) 5(7) 0.13
Congestive heart 58 (6) 1 (D 0.18
failure
Atrial fibrillation 16(2) 0(0) 0.62
Valvular heart disease 22 (2) 3(4) 0.23
Leg Claudication 46 (5) 4(5) 0.77
Cardiac surgery 44 (4) 2(3) 0.74
Carotid Endarterectomy 7(1) 0(0) 1.00
Peripheral Arterial 22 (2) 0(0) 0.39
Vascular Surgery
Thoracic/Abdominal 26 (3) 1 (D 1.00
Aortic Surgery
Leisure exercise 370 (37) 30 (41) 0.49
Family History Stroke 417 (41) 28 (38) 0-32 „
Cigarette Smoking 0.001
Never 380 (38) 15 (20)
Former smoker 255 (25) 18 (24)
Current 377 (37) 41 (55)
Alcohol Consumption 0.21
None/occasional 904 (89) 62 (85)
Regular/daily 75 (7) 10 (14)
Heavy 28 (3) 2(1)
History of Stroke 258 (26) 13 (18) 0.13
History of TIA 79 (8) 6(8) 0.95

MRI-Based Infarcts (Table 2)

Non-hypertensives had a lower mean number of old infarcts on MRI (0.94 ± 1.40 vs. 1.45 ± 1.60; p=0.045), while there was no difference in the number of recent infarcts between the two groups (1.31 ± 1.07 vs. 1.31 ± 0.93; p=0.73).
silagra tablets

Table 2. COMPARISON OF MRI-BASED INFARCTS AMONG HYPERTENSIVES AND NON-HYPERTENSIVES

Factor Hypertensives Non-hypertensives P value
(n=487) (n=32)
Recent Infarction
Mean 1.31 ± 1.07 1.31 ± 0.93 0.73
Median 1 1
Range 0-6 0-4
Old Strokes 0.045
Mean 1.45 ± 1.60 0.94 ± 1.40
Median 1 0
Range 0-8 0-5

CT-Based Infarcts (Table 3)

Factor Hypertensives Non-hypertensives

P-value

(n=576) (n=37)
Recent Infarction
Mean 0.93 ± 1.01 1.30 ± 1.15

0.031

Median 1 1
Range 0-6 0-5
Old Strokes

0.078

Mean 1.13 ± 1.29 0.84 ±1.21
Median 1 0
Range 0-9 0-4

Non-hypertensives had a trend for lower mean number of old infarcts on CT (0.84 ± 1.21 vs. 1.13 ± 1.29; p=0.078), while hypertensives had a lower mean number of recent infarcts (0.93 ± 1.01 vs. 1.30 ± 1.15;p=0.031).

Table 3. COMPARISON OF CT-BASED INFARCTS AMONG HYPERTENSIVES AND NON-HYPERTENSIVES

Stroke Subtypes and Stroke Syndromes (Table 4)

Stroke subtypes were classified as large vessel in 21%, lacunar in 66% and acute ischemic of unknown cause in 13% of hypertensive patients, while non-hypertensives were classified as 19%, 58% and 23% for these subtypes, respectively (p=0.060). There was no difference in the frequency of stroke syndromes classified as major hemispheral (15% vs. 15%), minor hemispheral (8% vs. 11%), deep hemispheric (62% vs. 51%) and brainstem/cerebellar (14% vs. 23%) (p=0.15).

Table 4. COMPARISON OF STROKE SUBTYPES AND STROKE SYNDROMES ACCORDING TO TOAST CRITERIA8

Stroke Subtypes/ Hypertensives Non-hypertensives P value
Stroke Syndromes (n=1012)

(n=74)

Large vessel 208 (21)

14 (19)

0.060
Lacunar 671 (66)

43 (58)

Acute ischemic of 133 (13)

17 (23)

unknown cause
Major hemispheral 154 (15)

11 (15)

0.15
Minor hemispheral 82 (8)

8(11)

Deep hemispheric 630 (62)

38 (51)

Brainstem/cerebellar 146 (14)

17 (23)

Multivariate Analysis (Table 5)

Logistic regression showed that the non-hypertensive African-American enrollees were more likely to be current cigarette smokers (OR=2.89, CI=1.60,5.49) and have slightly higher education (OR=1.08, CI=0.996,1.17) but less likely to have old CT/MRI-based infarcts (OR=0.46, CI=0.26,0.76). tadacip 20 mg

Table 5. LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PREDICTORS OF ASSOCIATION FOR NON-HYPERTENSIVE STATUS

Factor Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Absence of history of:
CT/MRI-based Infarcts (old) 0.46 (0.26, 0.76)
Current cigarette smokers 2.89 (1.60, 5.49)
Education (in years) 1.08 (0.996, 1.17)
Online Pharmacy