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Acute Respiratory Infections: Haemophilus influenzae Vaccine

Acute Respiratory Infections: Haemophilus influenzae Vaccine

Haemophilus influenzae Vaccine Haemophilus influenzae is the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children. Vaccine against H influenzae type b is widely used and effective against invasive infection in children over 2 years of age. However, a high proportion of H influenzae infections, especially in developing countries, are due to other serotypes and […]

Acute Respiratory Infections: Pneumococcal Vaccine

Respiratory Syncytial (RS) Virus and Other Respiratory Virus Vaccines The RS virus is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants worldwide. It is associated with significant mortality and possible damage to bronchioles, with residual abnormalities of function. An effective vaccine could be expected to have a significant impact on incidence and mortality from ARI […]

Acute Respiratory Infections: Rertussis Vaccine

Acute Respiratory Infections: Rertussis Vaccine

Rertussis Vaccine Current whole cell vaccine is generally highly effective in protecting susceptible children against whooping cough after household exposure. However, concern about the safety of the vaccine has led to poor rates of administration in many countries. Acellular pertussis vaccines that include only those purified and toxoided antigens thought to be necessary to stimulate […]

Acute Respiratory Infections: ARI in Adults

ARI in Adults There are 3 ways in which ARI might influence the development of chronic airways disease in adults: (1) By initiating the onset. There is no reliable evidence to support this suggestion. (2) By speeding progression of established disease. Fletcher and Peto argued on the basis of a follow-up of 30-59-year-old men in […]

Acute Respiratory Infections: Risk Factors for ARI

Acute Respiratory Infections: Risk Factors for ARI

Risk Factors for ARI There is considerable evidence that social and environmental factors have a major influence on the incidence and severity of childhood respiratory infections. Most of the evidence comes from studies on populations of children in developed countries. What evidence there is from studies in developing countries suggests that the same factors operate. […]

Acute Respiratory Infections: Agents of ARI

Agents of ARI A large number of microbial agents can cause ARI (Table 4). The most common primary agents are viruses and the most lethal are bacteria, often as secondary invaders. Agents that affect the bronchi and bronchioles tend to be associated with long-term abnormalities more than those that cause pneumonia. It is difficult, however, […]

Acute Respiratory Infections: ARI in Children Childhood Antecedents of Adult CAD

Acute Respiratory Infections: ARI in Children Childhood Antecedents of Adult CAD

The first involves the continued follow-up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort to age 36 years. Previous studies at ages 20 and 25 had suggested an association between childhood chest illness and respiratory symptoms in adult life. At 36, when peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured as well as respiratory symptoms (MRC Bronchitis Questionnaire), […]

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