Limited-Sampling Strategies for Anti-Infective Agents: RESULTS
Thirty-four studies met the initial inclusion criteria. Fourteen of these studies were excluded: 4 were conducted in healthy volunteers, 1 involved volunteers with cystic fibrosis who did not have an active infection, 8 did not suggest sampling times, and 2 studied previously validated limited-sampling strategies in new populations. Summarizes the characteristics of the included studies according to their levels of evidence. The following information was extracted from each study: level of evidence, the anti- infective agent, the population for derivation of the limited- sampling strategy, the sampling times investigated, the suggested timed samples, the equation(s) for the limited-sampling strategy, r (the correlation coefficient) or r2, the percent bias for the validation group, the percent precision, and additional comments.
Two studies for each of the following drugs described limited-sampling strategies: ciprofloxacin (level I and level III evidence, respectively), didanosine (level I and level II- 1 evidence, respectively), nelfinavir (level I and level III evidence, respectively), vancomycin (level II-1 and level III evidence, respectively) and ceftazidime (level II-2 and level III evidence, respectively). Limited-sampling strategies were described in a single study for each of the following agents: zidovudine (level I evidence), nevirapine (level I evidence), efavirenz (level I evidence), lamivudine (level II-1 evidence), lopinavir-ritonavir (level II-1), saquinavir (level II-2 evidence), ganciclovir (level III evidence), pyrazinamide (level III evidence), meropenem (level III evidence) and alpha interferon (level III evidence).
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