Limited-Sampling Strategies for Anti-Infective Agents: METHODS
The PubMed (January 1966 to December 2008) and EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2008) databases were searched to identify potential studies for review. The following search terms were used: “anti-infective agents”, “limited sampling”, “optimal sampling”, “sparse sampling”, “AUC monitoring”, “abbreviated AUC”, “abbreviated sampling”, and “Bayesian”. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also searched manually.
Studies were retrieved if the abstract described the use of limited, optimal, or sparse blood sampling for monitoring an anti-infective agent. Studies published in abstract form were excluded. Studies published in full were included if they described the development of limited-sampling strategies to predict AUC or peak concentrations for anti-infective agents in humans and were written in English.
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Studies conducted in healthy volunteers or in patients without an active infection were excluded; the results of such studies cannot be extrapolated to patients with active infections because of potential differences in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters. Also excluded were studies that did not suggest sampling times and those that merely described a previously developed and validated limited-sampling strategy.
Included studies were classified according to their levels of evidence. Because there are no formalized criteria for determining levels of evidence for studies of limited-sampling strategies, the criteria were adapted from those developed by the US Preventive Services Task Force. This adaptation has been used successfully in previous reviews of limited-sampling strategies of immunosuppressants and chemotherapy agents. Studies were classified into 4 categories (level I, II-1, II-2, or III) according to criteria presented. Kamagra Oral Jelly