• 10
    Dec
  • JOHN HENRY ACTIVE COPING, EDUCATION, AND BLOOD PRESSURE: Results

Descriptive statistics for the entire sample, split by gender, are shown in Table 1. T-tests revealed a significant difference on BMI between men and women, with women exhibiting greater BMI. There were no other significant differences found on any of the other descriptive variables measured on a continuous scale. The majority (86%) of the sample reported a positive family history of hypertension, and 53% reported they were smokers. Due to the lack of correspondence between the two cohorts in assessing marital status, we provide information on marital status only for descriptive purposes: of the 66 subjects (38 men and 28 women) with data on marital status, 37% of the men and 25% of the women reported they were married.


Table 1. Descriptive Statistics for the Entire Sample and for Men and Women

Variables                              Total Sample (N=124)

Men (N=69)

Women (N=55)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 125.4(±18.41)

126.1 (±18.87)

124.5(±17.96)
(mmHg) 79.8(±15.26)

80.4(±15.51)

78.9(±15.04)
Age (years) 35.6(±6.28)

34.8(±6.05)

36.6(±6.46)
BMI** 27.1 (±6.18)

25.2(±4.67)

29.4(±7.03)
Education (years) 13.6(±2.48)

13.5(±2.24)

13.8(±2.77)
JHAC12 30.1 (±3.30)

30.2(±3.41)

30.0(±3.19)
Income*1 (dollars) 17,803(±12,771)

13,671 (±8,977)

21,418 (±14,585)
*Men and women differ, p=0.0359 ** Men and women differ, p=0.0002^ote: Due to different assessment techniques in the measurement of this variable across cohorts total n=45; n=24 for men and 21 for women.

Figure 1. Influence of John Henryism

Figure 1. Influence of John Henryism on Systolic Blood Pressure for Men and Women

As can be seen in Tables 2 and 3, Pearson correlations revealed an inverse relationship between education and systolic and diastolic blood pressure for women but not for men. BMI was significantly positively correlated with age and blood pressure and negatively correlated with education among women. However, among men, BMI was significantly positively associated with blood pressure and negatively correlated with JHAC12 scores. As expected, there were significant correlations between diastolic and systolic blood pressure among both men and women. generic cialis 20mg

Table 2. Correlations of Descriptive Variables for Men

BMI

JH

Age

Education

SBP           DBP
BMI

1.00

JH

-0.29*

1.00

Age

-0.13

-0.14

1.00

Education

-0.11

0.05

-0.03

1.00

SBP

0.31**

0.06

0.03

0.09

1.00
DBP

0.30**

-0.05

-0.05

0.07

0.79**        1.00
*p<0.05   ** pO.01

To test the John Henryism hypothesis, we used multiple regression approaches to the general linear model. Consistent with early studies on the John Henryism hypothesis, SES was operationalized as educational level. For the analyses, the dependent variables were average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The study also controlled for BMI (a well-known risk factor for hypertension) to determine whether the combination of active coping and educational level yielded significant differences in blood pressure. Independent variables were BMI, gender, years of education, and JHAC12 score. Interaction terms entered into the model included education x gender, JHAC12 score x gender, JHAC12 score x years of education, and JHAC12 score x years of education by gender (see Table 4). The interaction term of education x JHAC12 x sex was significant for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.00 and p=0.03, respectively). canadian antibiotics

Table 3. Correlations of Descriptive Variables for Women

BMI

JH

Age Education SBP           DBP
BMI

1.00

JH

-0.14

1.00

Age

0.30*

0.02

1.00
Education

-0.27*

-0.10

0.10 1.00
SBP

0.33*

0.14

0.16 -0.34** 1.00
DBP

0.30*

0.07

0.18 -0.27 0.83**        1.00
*p<0.05   ** p<0.01

In order to describe the findings and discuss the shape of the three-way interactions, it was necessary to dichotomize subjects into high and low JHAC12 scores and high and low educational levels. To be consistent with previous operationalizations of John Henryism as well as to try to avoid “aggregation bias”, relative median splits were used to dichotomize subjects into high and low groups for each variable. The median split for education was 13 years or less, whereas the median split for the JHAC12 was a score of 30 or less for both men and women. For both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the regression analyses revealed a statistically significant three-way interaction (education x JHAC12 x gender). The shape of the above interaction is graphically depicted in Figures 1 and 2. Higher JH AC 12 scores were associated with higher blood pressure levels for men with high levels of education and for women with low educational levels.

Figure 2. Influence of John Henryism

Figure 2. Influence of John Henryism on Diastolic Blood Pressure for Men and Women

Table 4. Summary of Regression Models

DF               Type 1 SS

F

P-value

Systolic Blood Pressure
BMI

1                  3265.66

11.43

0.00

Gender

1                    886.86

3.10

0.08

Education

1                      91.39

0.32

0.57

JH

1                   1081.00

3.78

0.05

Education x Gender

1                   1064.14

3.72

0.06

JHAC12x Gender

1                      24.52

0.09

0.77

Education x JHAC12

1                      22.70

0.08

0.79

Education x JHAC12 x Gender

1                   2407.04

8.42

0.00

Diastolic Blood Pressure
BMI

1                   1911.57

9.08

0.00

Gender

1                    617.95

2.93

0.09

Education

1                      30.04

0.14

0.71

JH

1                    106.66

0.51

0.48

Education x Gender

1                    438.26

2.08

0.15

JHAC12x Gender

1                      63.34

0.30

0.58

Education x JHAC12

1                    239.81

1.14

0.29

Education x JHAC12 x Gender

1                   1018.61

4.84

0.03

Note: error df = (115)
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