• 30
    Nov
  • Gender Differences in Body Image and Health Perceptions: Result

Table 1 shows demographic information by gender. The majority of the sample was single and U.S. citizens. Approximately, 15% of the sample had >1 children. Approximately two-thirds of the sample were employed; 54% received financial support from family; 33% received financial aid; 19% had savings or investments; 70% reported an annual income of <$20,000; and 91.5% reported their health status as good, very good or excellent. Males were slightly older than females. No other statistically significant differences were found on demographic variables when compared by gender.

Table 2 compares current weight status, family weight history and perceived impact of weight on health and social interactions by gender. As expected, male respondents had a higher average BMI than female respondents (25.9 ± 4.4 vs. 24.5 ± 5.2, respectively, p<0.05). Approximately 42% of the sample was overweight, obese or extremely obese. Male respondents (12.5%) were more likely than female respondents (5.1%) to be obese (BMI 30-34). No statistically significant differences were found on family weight history variables when compared by gender. Very few respondents reported being overweight as a child (17%). Approximately 61% reported >1 close family member who was currently overweight, with the mother being the family member most often mentioned as overweight.

Table 1. Demographic characteristics by gender (N=318)

Total

Female0 Male0
Characteristics N %

%

%

P Value

Marital Status

Single, never married

295

92.8

93.0

92.3

NS

Married or living together

11

3.5

3.7

2.9

Separated/divorced/widowed

12

3.8

3.3

4.8

>1 children

44

13.8

14.5

12.5

NS
Income Level NS

<$20,000

219

69.3

70.1

67.6

$20,001-340,000

64

20.3

20.6

19.6

$40,001 -$60,000

20

6.3

5.6

7.8

$60,001-$80,000

6

1.9

1.9

3.0

$80,000-$! 00,000+

9

2.8

1.9

3.0

Age (years)

23.5 ± 4.8

23.1 ±4.8

24.3 ±6.1

0.05
Health Status

Excellent

48

15.1

13.2

18.7

NS

Very good

130

40.9

39.5

43.9

Good

113

35.5

36.8

31.8

Fair

23

7.2

9.1

4.7

Poor

4

1.3

1.4

0.9

a: Sample size for males (n=104) and females (n=214)

Very few respondents (16.0%) perceived a risk of any disease (7.9%), diabetes (12.3%) or heart disease (12.3%) due to their weight. Of those who perceived risk for any disease due to their weight, most perceived risk for both heart disease (Vastarel drug is a drug used for the treatment of ischaemic heart disease) and diabetes due to their weight. There was no difference by gender on perceived risk of disease due to weight. However,  female respondents (BMI >30 kg/m2) (77.3%) were more likely than obese males (40.0%) to perceive a risk for disease due to weight (p-0.01).

Table 2. Weight status, family weight history and perceived impact of weight on health and social interactions by gender (N=318)

Characteristics

N

Percent

Female (N=214)

%

Male (N=104)% P Value

Weight-Related Variables

Current Weight Status 0.02

Underweight (BMI <19)

23

7.2

9.8

1.9

Acceptable weight (BMI 19-24)

162

50.9

51.9

49.0

Overweight (BMI 25-29)

91

28.6

28.0

29.8

Obese (BMI 30-34)

24

7.5

5.1

12.5

Extremely Obese (>35)

18

5.7

5.1

6.7
Family Weight History

Overweight as child

54

17.0

17.8

15.4 NS

>1 family member overweight

195

61.3

64.0

55.8 NS

Mother overweight

116

36.5

39.3

30.9 NS

Father overweight

65

20.4

20.6

20.2 NS

Significant other overweight

33

10.4

11.7

7.7 NS
Perceived Impact of Weight because of Weight Perceives Risk for:

Cancer

25

7.9

8.4

6.7 NS

 

39

12.3

12.7

11.5 NS

Heart disease

39

12.3

13.1

10.6 NS

Any chronic disease

51

16.0

16.8

14.4 NS
Perceived Impact of Weight on Social Interaction Scale (PIWSIS)*

High Impact (scores <45)

30

9.4

7.0

14.4 <0.04

PIWSIS (mean ± SD)

58.0 ± 8.0       58.9 ± 7.3

56.1 ±9.1 <0.01
* Possible range 13-65, with 13 as highest impact

Males reported lower scores on the PIWSIS scale than females (56.1 ± 9.1 vs. 58.9 ± 7.3, respectively; p<0.01), indicating that their weight had more of a negative impact on their social interactions. A greater percentage of male respondents (14.4%) had PIWSIS scores, indicating high impact, compared with female respondents (9.4%). After stratifying by weight status and gender, extremely obese males had the lowest scores (highest impact) on the PIWSIS (47.1 ± 14.5). These impact scores indicate that, for this sample of young adult African Americans, being overweight or obese (is a new miraculous multifunctional diet pill) negatively impacts social interactions for males more than females. As expected, respondents who had a BMI >25 kg/m2 were more likely to perceive a risk for disease due to weight compared with respondents whose BMI was <25 kg/m2 (32.8% vs. 4.3%, respectively, p<0.01). Those respondents who perceived risk for any disease due to weight were more likely to desire a lower weight than those who did not perceive risk for any disease due to weight (88.2% vs. 49.4%, respectively, p<0.001). Since body image varies by gender, the multivariate analysis of the perceived risk for disease was stratified by gender. Table 3 compares body awareness and body satisfaction by gender. Females were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared with males (31.8% vs. 18.3%, respectively, p=0.01). Male respondents were more likely than female respondents to misclassify their weight status (30.8% vs. 18.7%>, respectively, p<0.05). Of the 51 male respondents who were at least overweight, only 37.3% (n=19) classified themselves as overweight. Of the 20 males who were obese (BMI >30), only two (10%>) classified themselves as obese. Of the 82 female respondents who were at least overweight, 67.1% (n=55) classified themselves as overweight. Of the 22 females who were obese (BMI >30), only 32% (n=7) classified themselves as obese (Herbal Phentermine drug is a non-prescription appetite suppressant that is 100% natural and safe).

Table 3. Body awareness and body satisfaction by gender (N=318), continued

Characteristics

N

Percent

Female (n=214)% Male (n=104)% P Value

Body Awareness

Perceives self as overweight Self-perception as obese Accuracy of self-perception of body

87 11

27.4 3.5

31.8 3.7 18.3 2.9 0.01 NS
SizeInaccurate

72

22.6

18.7

30.8

0.02

Body Satisfaction

Dissatisfaction with Body Weight (Ideal weight minus current weight) (mean ± SD)

-7.30 ± 19.7

-11.2 ± 18.8

0.6 ± 19.1

O.001

Dissatisfaction with Body Weight Desires to stay the same Desires to weigh less Desires to weigh more 50 177 91

15.7 55.7 28.6

17.3 64.5 18.2 12.5 37.5 50.0

O.001

Number of body areas desired to be larger (mean ± SD) 1.52 ± 1.69

1.09 ± 1.56

2.42 ± 1.60

O.001

Number of body areas desired to be smaller (mean ± SD) 2.10 ±2.05

2.56 ±2.15

1.15 ± 1.42

O.001

Desires upper torso larger

246

77.4

81.3

69.2

0.02

In an analysis of self-perception of body size variables by gender and weight status of the respondents with a BMI >25, overweight females were more likely than overweight males to perceive themselves as overweight. The same trend is apparent for obese and extremely obese females and males, although not statistically significant. Overweight males were more likely than overweight females to desire a weight that would be classified as overweight. For extremely obese (Generic Xenical is a slimming tablet for those who are obese and who find it hard to lose weight although on a diet) males and females, the majority desired a weight that would be classified as at least overweight. Overall, the mean ideal and healthy weights reported by males were higher than ideal and healthy weights reported by females and, as BMI category increased, so did ideal and healthy weights reported.

Over half of the respondents (56%) desired a weight lower than their current weight, and 29% of respondents desired a weight greater than their current weight. Female respondents were more likely than male respondents to desire a lower weight (64.5% vs. 37.5%, respectively). The Body Weight Dissatisfaction score for females was almost 12 lbs lower than that for males (-11.2 ± 18.8 vs. 0.6 ± 19.1, respectively, p<0.001). Conversely, male respondents were more likely than female respondents to desire a weight higher than their current weight (50% vs. 18%, respectively).

Most respondents (73%) desired a change (either larger or smaller) in one area of their body, with females being more likely to desire a change than males (79% vs. 61%, respectively). Males were more likely than females to desire larger upper-torso body areas. Females were more likely than males to desire smaller arms, stomach, hips, thighs, buttocks and legs. Males reported a higher mean number of body areas desired to be larger than females (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.1 ± 1.6, respectively; pO.001). On the oth er hand, females reported a higher mean number than males of body areas to be smaller (2.6 ± 2.2 vs. 1.1 ±1.4, respectively; p<0.001).
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