DYSPEPSIA IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND HISPANIC PATIENTS: METHODS
Study Population and Study Site
The King-Drew Medical Center is an inner-city community teaching hospital serving a predominantly African-American and Hispanic population. Medical records of 764 patients 22-98 years of age with investigated dyspepsia were identified for a retrospective review. Demographic information, presence or absence of alarm features, and the results of the endoscopic and/or radiological evaluations were abstracted. The alarm features investigated were age greater than 50 years, anemia, weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding, loss of appetite, early satiety, the presence of an abdominal mass, and dysphagia. The source of this information included inpatient and outpatient chart review and gastroenterology consultation reports. Twenty-nine Asian, 29 Caucasian, and 28 patients with incomplete data were excluded. Subsequently 678 patients were reviewed. Patients were stratified according to their age into three groups: 22-50 years (group 1), 51-75 years (group 2), and 76-98 years (group 3).
Data were analyzed using either the two-tailed chi-squared test (Yates correction) or the Fisher exact test (in sparse data) to assess the statistically significant difference between the age groups for the presence of the alarm features and the presence of the gastrointestinal lesions. In order to test the association between the presence of the alarm features and the presence of the gastrointestinal lesion identified by endoscopic and/or radiographic evaluation, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Odds ratios were calculated for the gastrointestinal lesions to estimate the odds of having the lesions in the group with alarm features relative to the group without alarm features. The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science version 10, 2000; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) and Epi Info (Windows® version 2.2, 2002; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], Atlanta, GA). cheap cialis canadian pharmacy