Category: Young children

The present study is one of the first to investigate relationships between PA in young children and their parents over the entire waking day. It expanded on previous reports by incorporating accelerometry for children, as well as parents, instead of relying on parental reports of children’s PA . Another strength is that we obtained and analyzed data from mothers and fathers separately. All fathers provided questionnaire data; however, 11 did not provide accelerometer data, which could limit the generalizability of our findings. Another limitation is that parents were well-educated with relatively high income levels and children were less likely to be overweight/obese than recent estimates in Canadian preschool children.
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DISCUSSION (part 1)

The main purpose of the present study was to examine daily PA in young children and their parents, and to explore the relationship between children’s and parents’ PA. Consistent with previous research, the present study found that young children spend most of their awake time in low intensity PA, and boys spent more time in MVPA than girls, particularly on weekends. The PA levels of mothers and fathers of young children were low, and only 37% of mothers and 16% of fathers participated daily in general PA with their children. However, parents’ participation in PA with their young children was a key factor; mothers’ involvement in organized PA with their children and fathers’ involvement in general PA with their children were found to predict the children’s MVPA on weekdays, and fathers’ involvement in general PA with their children predicted the children’s MVPA on weekends.
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RESULTS (part 3)

Parents spent the majority of their time in light activity. On weekdays, more than 50% of mothers and fathers engaged in 30 min of daily MVPA; however, on weekends less than one-half of the mothers attained 30 min of daily MVPA. Fewer than 20% of mothers and less than one-third of fathers attained 60 min of MVPA on weekdays. Daily MVPA was significantly correlated for mothers and fathers within each family on weekends (r=0.43, P=0.009), but not on weekdays.
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Physical activity
Student’s t-tests revealed no differences in time spent in light activity or MVPA between children cared for at home and those in organized care. Children spent the majority of their time in light PA during weekdays and weekends. On weekdays, boys tended to attain more MVPA minutes than girls (t(50) = 1.68, P=0.098) and on weekends they spent significantly more time in MVPA than girls (t(49)=2.57, P=0.013) (Table 2). Nearly all children attained 30 min of MVPA on weekdays and weekend days. No differences emerged among the three age groups in MVPA attainment on weekdays, but on weekends, there was a trend for children five to six years of age to spend more time in MVPA (F(2,48)=2.55, P=0.089).
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A convenience sample of 54 families (54 mothers and 50 fathers) with children three to six years of age participated in this study. Most children were in full/part-time care during weekdays (Table 1). The majority of parents were well educated, and of high SES, which is characteristic of the study location. Approximately 10% of children were overweight, whereas almost 40% of mothers and more than 60% of fathers were overweight. More mothers than fathers engaged in general, unorganized PA with their children on a regular basis (ie, once a day), but few mothers and fathers participated regularly in organized PA with their child (Table 1). Buy cheap drugs online fast – Buy Symbicort Online (http://buy-asthma-inhalers-online.com/) for you to enjoy a reliable pharmacy.
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Statistical analyses
Accelerometer data files were examined for sustained periods of zero activity. Data with >10 min of only zero counts were eliminated. Child-specific cut-points were used to categorize children’s PA into time spent in light activity (<1680 bouts of movement/ min) and MVPA (>1680 bouts of movement/min). These child-specific cut-points were developed using 15 s intervals and multiplied by four to approximate 1 min intervals. For mothers and fathers, adult-specific cut-points were used. Parents’ PA levels were categorized into time spent in light activity (<1952 bouts of movement/min) and MVPA (>1953 bouts of movement/ min). These adult cut-points were developed using 1 min intervals.
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Accelerometers were used to measure PA (Actigraph model AM7164, Actigraph, USA). This instrument has been successfully used with young children. The sampling interval of the accelerometers was set at 1 min, so that the intervals for parents and children were equivalent. Although the use of a 1 min interval is regarded by some investigators to be problematic with young children, there is currently no gold standard. Empirical evidence suggests that differences in sampling intervals is a relatively minor source of error in estimating PA, with the main consequence of using 1 min epochs in young children being a slight misclassification of some vigorous activity as MVPA. Accelerometer data were collected for children (n=54), for a mean (±SD) of 3.3±0.61 weekdays and 1.7±0.51 weekend days; for mothers (n=50), for an average of 3.2±0.61 weekdays and 1.7 ±0.49 weekend days; and for fathers (n=39), for an average of 3.2±0.68 weekdays and 1.7±0.55 weekend days. The children wore the accelerometers on average for 11.8±1.3 hr/weekday and 10.6±2.4 hr/weekend day; mothers wore them 14.2±1.8 hr/weekday and 12.7±2.4 hr/weekend day; and fathers wore them 15.6±4.4 hr/ weekday and 13.1±2.4 hr/weekend day. Fathers who only provided questionnaire data did not differ on any variables from those who provided questionnaire and accelerometer data.
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