Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

Category: Spermicidal

Spermicidal Activity of Oxovanadium: DISCUSSION(4)

In sperm, an NADPH-depen-dent superoxide-generating system has been demonstrated. In addition, the ability of H2O2 generating Lactobacillus acidophilus, which is present in the vaginas of most normal women, can further potentiate the spermicidal activity of intravaginally applied oxovanadium(IV) complex. This is in contrast to the commercial vaginal detergent spermicide, N-9, which is selectively toxic to […]

Spermicidal Activity of Oxovanadium: DISCUSSION(3)

The mechanism of sperm motility loss induced by oxo-vanadium(IV) complexes is yet to be determined. Both the vanadocenes(IV) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes also have antitumor activity. The antitumor effects of vanadium(IV) complexes are thought to be due to their reaction with the vanadyl-H2O2 system, which results in the generation of hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like reaction. […]

Spermicidal Activity of Oxovanadium: DISCUSSION(2)

Structure-activity relationship analyses of 19 vanadocenes and 11 oxovanadium(IV) complexes clearly demonstrated that the spermicidal properties of these complexes were determined by the oxidation state of the vanadium(IV) atom. The various ancillary ligands linked by either carbon, nitrogen, or oxygen atoms to the central vanadium(IV) atom significantly contributed either to fine tuning of the spermicidal […]

Spermicidal Activity of Oxovanadium: DISCUSSION(1)

Our results provide unprecedented evidence that oxovana-dium(IV) complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2′-bipyridyl, or 5′-bromo-2′-hydroxyacetophenone and their derivatives linked to vanadium(IV) via nitrogen or oxygen atoms have potent spermicidal activity against human sperm. The order of spermicidal efficacy for the 11 oxovanadium(IV) complexes synthesized and evaluated was as follows: VO(Cl-phen)2 > VO(phen)2 > VO(Br,OH-acph)2 > VO(Me2-phen) > […]

Spermicidal Activity of Oxovanadium: RESULTS(8)

Next, TdT-mediated labeling of exposed 3′-OH termini of nuclear DNA with FITC-conjugated dUTP by the in situ TUNEL method was employed to demonstrate that oxo-vanadium(IV) complexes induced apoptosis in the sperm nuclear compartment. Figure 4, E and F, depicts the two-color flow cytometric contour plots of sperm nuclei of control sperm (E) treated with 0.1% […]

Spermicidal Activity of Oxovanadium: RESULTS(7)

Changes in the plasma membrane of the cell surface also appear early in cells undergoing apoptosis. In ap-optotic cells, the membrane phospholipid phosphatidyl serine is translocated from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, thereby exposing phosphatidyl serine to┬áthe external cellular environment. Annexin V binds to phosphatidyl serine residues that are exposed […]

Spermicidal Activity of Oxovanadium: RESULTS(6)

Analysis by flow cytometry of the mitochondrial membrane potential changes occurring during apoptosis were analyzed with a A^m indicator, JC-1, a carbocyanine cationic dye, by following fluorescence associated with the uptake of JC-1 to evaluate A^m modifications. Motile sperm exhibited intense green and red fluorescence of JC-1 (Fig. 4A). It can be seen that a […]

Tags