Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

Category: Protein

Changes in Intracellular Distribution: DISCUSSION

Biogenesis of the mammalian sperm flagellum is a complex sequential process, starting early during spermiogen-esis with the elaboration of a primary flagellum, a simple axoneme enveloped by a plasma membrane. The primary flagellum is very thin, and ribosomes and other organelles are excluded from it. The proteins destined for the maturing flagellum were assumed to […]

Changes in Intracellular Distribution: RESULTS

Akap4 Gene Knockout and Testes-Weight Comparison Western blot assay was used to check the presence of AKAP4 in mice spermatozoa. As expected, AKAP4 was not detected in Akap4 gene knockout spermatozoa but was detected in wild-type spermatozoa. Furthermore, AKAP4 was only present in the sperm pellets of wild-type mice (Fig. 1A). This confirmed the previous […]

Changes in Intracellular Distribution: MATERIALS AND METHODS

Preparation of Mouse Testes and Sperm-Soluble Extracts The testes of Akap4 gene knockout and wild-type mice were isolated and weighed. They were homogenized in homogenization buffer (buffer A: 10 mM Tris [pH 7.2] containing 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 10 mM benzamidine-HCl, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 0.01 mM Na-to-syl-phenylalanine-chloromethylketone, and 5 mM p-mercapto-ethanol) using […]

Changes in Intracellular Distribution: INTRODUCTION

The cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway is a well-studied sig-nal-transduction cascade. The second messenger cAMP mediates its intracellular effects through PKA (cAMP-dependent kinase, formally known as PRKACA). The holoen-zyme of PKA is a tetramer of two catalytic subunits and two regulatory subunits. The catalytic subunits are encoded by three genes, Ca, Cp, and C7, while the […]