Body Image and Attitude toward Obesity
The epidemic of obesity (Acomplia canadian is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) is of major concern in the United States. Allison and Saunders in their 2000 publication reported that 60.6% of white, non-Hispanic adult men were overweight or obese. A comparable figure for black, non-Hispanic adult men was 56.7% and for Mexican-American adult men was 63.9%. For adult women, prevalence rates of overweight or obesity were as follows: white, non-Hispanic—47.4%; black, non-Hispanic—66%; and Mexican-American—65.9%. Thus, among the three largest racial and ethnic segments of the U.S. population, black women and Hispanics of both sexes have the highest rates of overweight and obesity. Melnyk and Weinstein stressed the importance of eliminating a predominantly white, Anglo-Saxon, ethnocentric perspective to understand, prevent and treat obesity (The use of Hoodia tabletes as an appetite suppressant is supported by both colorful folklore history and recent scientific studies) in black female adolescents in the United States.
Fontaine et al. studied years of life lost due to obesity. They noted that obesity markedly lessens life expectancy, especially among younger adults. Younger black Americans with severe obesity (Generic Zimulti is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) had a maximum years of life lost of 20 years for men and five years for women.
The concept of body mass index (BMI) is core to understanding obesity in children, adolescents and adults. BMI is defined as weight (kilograms) divided by height squared (meters). If one uses the English system of measurement instead of the metric system, then BMI = [weight (pounds) / height (inches2)] x 703 (to convert to kg/m2).
For children and adolescents, tables are available for BMI percentiles for sex and age. These tables should be employed rather than using absolute measurements of BMI to define obesity in youths. Among youths, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not use the term obesity. Rather, they define youths with BMI between the 85th percentile to <95th percentile for sex and age as at risk for overweight. Youths are overweight when the BMI for sex and age >95th percentile. Adults with a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 are considered overweight; those with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more are considered obese. In our paper, whenever possible, we use specific BMI measurements to describe our findings rather than less clear terms, such as “overweight” and “obese.”
Obesity-related health risk factors include mellitus, high cholesterol (Lasuna drug helps in controlling the excess conversion of lipids and cholesterol), asthma and poor health status. Obesity is rapidly overtaking smoking as the leading cause of death in the United States. Body image perceptions and attitudes about obesity may help us better elucidate the origins and management of this major health problem.
For nearly a century, writers, artists, mental health professionals, philosophers and other scholars have sought to understand and describe “body image.” Some separate this concept into perceptual body image (how we see our bodies) and attitudinal body image (how we feel about our bodies). Investigators have shown that ethnic groups are generally similar in defining their ideal body image traits, while embracing differences in such parameters as skin color and breast size.
Jackson and McGill argue that black males prefer larger body types for females, while black females prefer slightly thinner body types for males. They suggested that there are race-specific standards of attractiveness within cultures, with black men preferring larger women than white men. The authors postulated that within the larger U.S. culture, black men valued wide hips and round buttocks, and black women valued full lips and muscular legs.
In a sample of black and white female dieters, Caldwell et al. looked at the relationships of weight, body dissatisfaction and self-esteem. Study subjects were overweight and of middle-to-high socioeconomic status. Race did not predict differences in body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, discrepancies between actual and ideal shape and weight, or the relationship between self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. BMI contributed more to body satisfaction scores in white than black women. The authors concluded that socioeconomic class was more predictive than race in identifying important body image factors for black and white women.
Thompson et al. reported black and white male adolescent perceptions of ideal body size. They employed a questionnaire and a series of nine male and female body size drawings. The authors found that black male adolescents preferred a heavier ideal female body size than their white counterparts. These black male adolescents compared with their white counterparts also believed that their parents and female and male friends would select as ideal heavier female body size. Specifically, black male adolescents were almost twice as likely as white male adolescents to select a larger ideal female hip/buttocks size and larger ideal female thigh size. Thompson et al. concluded that black male adolescents were more likely than their white counterparts to approve of and find socially acceptable a larger body size for black females.
In some settings, overweight and obesity (Generic Xenical is a slimming tablet for those who are obese) are seen in largely positive terms. Simeon et al. looked at body image of adolescents in a multiethnic Caribbean population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the secondary schools in Trinidad (stratified random sample of 1,139 youths, ages 14-17 years). Ethnic groups included South Asians (49%), Africans (25%) andyouths of mixed ethnicity (23%). BMI measurements showed that 14% were thin, 73% normal and 13% overweight. South-Asian male adolescents were preponderantly thin (28%) and more likely to overestimate their body size than other adolescents. Thin South Asians compared with other thin adolescents were more likely to be satisfied with their body size. Overweight African adolescents compared with other overweight adolescents were more likely to be satisfied with their body size. The majority of the study sample associated normal body size with good health and associated overweight and obese silhouettes with wealth. In 40% of the study subjects, male overweight and obese silhouettes were associated with happiness. The authors expressed concern that many of the Trinidad adolescents associated obesity (Herbal Phentermine tabletes is a non-prescription appetite suppressant that is 100% natural and safe) with wealth and happiness. They also worried that overweight African female adolescents were satisfied with their body size.
Adkins used female college students to assess race as a predictor of body image satisfaction and body size preference. Thirty black female students and 55 white female students completed various measures of body image satisfaction, including line drawings to assess current and ideal body size. Although there were no significant racial differences in perceived current body size or self-reported weight, black female students described less body dissatisfaction, a lesser drive for thinness and less fear of body fat than their white counterparts. Compared with white female students, black female students selected a larger ideal body size from the line drawings.
During the course of four years, college students transition from late adolescents to early adulthood. Most commonly this is done in a multiracial setting in the United States. An historically black university provides a less commonly available model to assess attitudes towards and perceptions about body image and obesity (Acomplia Generic is an anti-obesity drug used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) among young, educated black men and women during their formative years. To further study this important topic, we measured BMI; used silhouettes of different body sizes to identify self and personal preferences; and sought attitudes and perceptions about obesity (Medication Phentrimine is a pharmaceutical quality weight control formula which produces effects similar to the most popular weight loss) among freshman, sophomores, juniors and seniors at Virginia State University. This study is one more step to help us to better understand and improve our management of obesity among young black Americans in the United States.