• 10
    Oct
  • Body Image and Attitude toward Obesity: RESULTS

There were 96 male students [mean age 20.2 ± (SD) 2.7 years] and 95 female students [mean age 20.2 ± (SD) 1.4 years]. Of these 191 students, 45 were freshman, 48 sophomores, 50 juniors and 48 seniors.

Table l(a,b,c). BMI Measurements by Sex

BMI measurement

(kg/m2)

Men (n=96) Women (n= 95)
Mean 26.026 24.660
Standard error 0.5943 0.5159
Upper 95% CI 27.206 25.685
Lower 95% CI 24.846 23.636
Range 16.133-48.817 17.473-39.931
Table lb. BMI Measurements by Grade Level
BMI measurement

(kg/m2)

Freshman (n=45)

Sophomore (n=48) Junior (n=50) Senior (n=48)
Mean

25.265

25.510 25.218 25.395
Standard error

0.7469

0.9084 0.8064 0.7062
Upper 95% CI

26.771

27.338 26.838 26.815
Lower 95% CI

23.760

23.683 23.597 23.974
Range

18.024-41.367

16.133-48.817 17.473-43.451 17.( P44-36.978
Table 1c. BMI Category by Sex
Sex <25 kg/m2 >25 kg/m2 Total
Men

48

48 96
Women

60

35 95

The BMI determinations for the 96 male students was 26.0 ± [SEM] 0.6 kg/m2 and for the 95 female students 24.7 ± [SEM] 0.5 kg/m2 (Table la). By grade level, BMI measurements were freshman 25.3 ± 0.7 kg/m2 (n=45); sophomores 25.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2 (n=48); juniors 25.2 ± 0.8 kg/m2 (n=50); and seniors 25.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2 (n=48) (Table lb). There were no significant differences in mean BMI measurements by sex or grade level (ANOVA). rimonabant weight loss

MALE student responses to silhouettes in Appendix A Question 1: Which body number best shows who you ARE now? Table 2.1.1a

Figure BMI <25 BMI >25 Total
1 2

0

2

2 8

0

8

со 30

9

39

4 8

21

29

5 0

12

12

6 0

2

2

7 0

4

4

Pearson’s chi square value = 45.135, df = 6, p value O.OOl

Table 2.1.1b

Figure Frequency Mean            Standard Error

Lower 95%

Upper 95%
1 2 21.5608 2.5007

16.592

26.530
2 8 20.9558 1.2503

18.471

23.440
3 39 23.2053 0.5663

22.080

24.330
4 29 26.4490 0.6567

25.144

27.754
5 12 31.2077 1.0209

29.179

33.236
6 2 37.7368 2.5007

32.768

42.706
7 4 41.4440 1.7683

37.931

44.958
Standard error uses a pooled estimate of error variance; The ANOVA shows an F(0.95; 6, 89) = 28.0960, with a P-value O.0001, and
Power of 1.00.
Comparison for all pairs using Tukey-Kramer HSD
Abs(Dif)-LSD 7 6             5 4

3               1

2
7 -7.5442 -5.5325       4.0765 9.3045

12.6373      10.6435

13.9548
6 -5.5325 -10.6691      -1.6195 3.4879

6.7964        5.5070

8.3464
5 4.0765 -1.6195      -4.3556 1.0966

4.4804        1.4982

5.3821
4 9.3045 3.4879       1.0966 -2.8018

0.6276       -2.9118

1.2324
CO 12.6373 6.7964       4.4804 0.6276

-2.4161       -6.0907

-1.8915
1 10.6435 5.5070       1.4982 -2.9118

-6.0907     -10.6691

-7.8297
2 13.9548 8.3464       5.3821 1.2324

-1.8915       -7.8297

-5.3345
Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different.
Comparison of mean BMI for all pairs using the Tukey-Kramer HSD procedure shows figures 6 and 7 were not different from each other
but both were significantly different from figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. Figure 7 was also significantly difference from figure 5. Figures 1,2, and 3,
were not different from each other. The mean BMI for figure 5 was significantly different from the mean BMI values for figures 1, 2, 3,
and 4, but not with Figure 6.

In separating BMI category (normal weight and overweight) by sex (Table lc), the men were evenly divided between these two groupings (n=48 for those men with BMI <25.0 kg/m2 and for those men with BMI >25.0 kg/m2). Most women (63.2%) had BMI measurements <25 kg/m2 (normal weight). cheap phentrimine

FEMALE students responses to silhouettes in Appendix A Question 1: Which body number best shows who you ARE now? Table 2.11.1a.

Figure BMI <25 BMI >25 Total
10 5

0

5

11 14

0

14

12 33 CO

36

13 CO

9

17

14 0

14

14

15 0 CO

8

16 0

1

1

Pearson’s Chi-squared value=64.980, df=6, p value O.OOl

Table 2.11.1b

Figure Number Mean

Standard Error

Lower 95% Upper 95%
10 5 18.4884

1.0610

16.380 20.597
11 14 20.1721

0.6340

18.912 21.432
12 36 22.6447

0.3954

21.859 23.430
13 17 24.9797

0.5754

23.836 26.123
14 14 29.8582

0.6340

28.598 31.118
15 8 33.9032

0.8388

32.236 35.570
16 1 38.7745

2.3724

34.060 43.489
Standard error uses a pooled estimate of error variance; The one-way ANOVA shows an F(0.95; 6, 88)=55.7133, with a p value O.OOOl
and Power of 1.00.
Comparison for all pairs using Tukey-Kramer HSD
Abs(Dif)-LSD 16 15

14              13

12 11 10
16 -10.1243 -2.7220

1.5061          6.4283

8.8722 11.1922 12.4438
15 -2.7220 -3.5795

0.8722         5.8542

8.4604 10.5583 11.3336
14 1.5061 0.8722

-2.7058         2.2948

4.9587 6.9803 7.6401
13 6.4283 5.8542

2.2948        -2.4555

0.2283 2.2239 2.8492
12 8.8722 8.4604

4.9587         0.2283

-1.6874 0.2177 0.7395
11 11.1922 10.5583

6.9803         2.2239

0.2177 -2.7058 -2.0461
10 12.4438 11.3336

7.6401          2.8492

0.7395 -2.0461 -4.5277
Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different; Comparison of mean BMI for all pairs using the Tukey-Kramer HSD
procedure shows Figures 15 and 16 are not different from each other. Both are significantly different from Figures 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.
Figure 14 was significantly different from figures 10, 11, 12 and 13. Figure 13 was also different from figures 10, 11 and 12. Figures 10 and
11 were not different from each other but both were significantly different from Figure 12.

Of the 96 men, 48 were under age 20 years and of the 95 women, 46 were under age 20 years. We selected these subsets of our sample for further study because national norms were available (2000 CDC Growth Charts). Using the Nutstat module of Epi Info for students under age 20 years, mean BMI, BMI percentiles and z-scores for the 48 men were 24.89 ± (SD) 5.50 kg/m2, 60.75 ± (SD) 29.31, and 0.3236 ± (SD) 1.2046, respectively, and for the 46 women 25.32 ± 5.43 kg/m2, 67.11 ± 27.15, and 0.5893 ± 0.9486, respectively. For these 48 men in a normal distribution, their mean z-score places them at the 62.69 BMI percentile. For these 46 women in a normal distribution, their mean z-score places them at the 72.31 BMI percentile.

Six (12.5%) of the 48 men under age 20 years had BMIs above the 95th percentile. Eight (17.4%) of the 46 women under age 20 years had BMIs about the 95th percentile. Thus, these 14 subjects were considered overweight using 2000 CDC nomenclature and obese (Acomplia canadian is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) using the American Academy of Pediatrics nosology.

FEMALE studentsQuestion 2: Which body number best shows who you would LIKE to be? Table 2.1.2a

Figure BMI <25 BMI >25 Total
1 2

1

со
2 2

4

6

3 21

10

31

4 22

26

48

5 1

7

8

Pearson’s Chi-squared value=9.737, df=4, p value=0.045

Table 2.1.2b.

Figure Number Mean Standard Error Lower 95% Upper 95%
1 со 24.0047 2.6719 18.697

29.312

2 6 25.5445 1.8893 21.792

29.297

со 31 24.2874 0.8312 22.636

25.938

4 48 25.3441 0.6680 24.017

26.671

5 CO 37.9785 1.6362 34.728

41.229

Standard error uses a pooled estimate of error variance; The ANOVA shows an F(0.95; 4, 91)

= 14.8551, with a p value O.0001 and

Power of 1.00.
Comparison for all pairs using Tukey-Kramer HSD
Abs(Dif)-LSD 5 2 4 3 1
5 -6.4401 5.4779 7.7158 8.5834

5.2539

2 5.4779 -7.4364 -5.3769 -4.4876

-7.5679

4 7.7158 -5.3769 -2.6292 -1.9111

-6.3259

3 8.5834 -4.4876 -1.9111 -3.2716

-7.5052

1 5.2539 -7.5679 -6.3259 -7.5052

-10.5166

Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different; The Tukey-Kramer HSD procedure of multiple comparisons for all

pairs shows mean BMI values for Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 were not different from each other. All four figures had mean BMI values that

were significantly different from the mean BMI for Figure 5.

For men for Question 1 of Appendix A (body silhouettes, Which body number best shows who you ARE now?), students of normal weight separated significantly (p<0.001) from those who were overweight or obese (The use of Hoodia tabletes as an appetite suppressant is supported by both colorful folklore history and recent scientific studies) using the Pearson Chi-squared procedure (Table 2.1.1a). ANOVA also showed statisti cally significant differences (pO.OOOl) and Power of 1.00 (Table 2.1.1b). The legend for Table 2.1.1b shows post-hoc findings.

Table 3. Responses to Obesity-Related Questions (Appendix B)

Responses were separated by sex and whether the BMI was < or >25 kg/m2. Female analyses appeal parentheses. All responses with positive integers (i.e., +3, +2, +1) were categorized as “aagree”. Responses with negative integers (i.e., -3, -2, -1) were categorized as “disagree”. The choice “0” was available. That is, we “forced” an “agree” or “disagree” response.
Question                     Agree             Disagree

/. Obese people are as happy as nonobese people BMI <25 kg/m2               31 (34)               17 (26) BMI >25 kg/m2               22(23)               26(12) Total                           53 (57)               43 (38)

Chi-Square

3.412 (0.754)

P Value

0.065 (0.385)

2. Most obese people feel they are not as good as other people BMK25kg/m2               25(43)               23(17) BMI >25 kg/m2               30(20)               18(15)

Total                            55(63)               41(32)                  1.064(2.087)

0.302 (0.149)
3. Most obese people are more self-conscious than other people BMK25kg/m2               32(47)               16(13) BMI >25 kg/m2               32(26)                16(9)

Total                            64(73)               32(22)                  0.000(0.204)

1.000 (0.652)
4. Obese workers cannot be as successful as other workers BMI <25 kg/m2               21 (14)               27 (46) BMI >25 kg/m2               14(10)               34(25) Total                           35 (24)               61 (71)

2.203 (0.321)

0.138 (0.571)
5. Most nonobese people would not want to marry anyone who is obese BMI <25 kg/m2               26 (33)               22 (27) BMI >25 kg/m2               28(20)               20(15)

Total                            54(53)               42(42)                  0.169(0.041)

0.681 (0.839)
6. Severely obese people are usually untidy BMI <25 kg/m2               25 (27)               23 (33) BMI >25 kg/m2               23(20)               25(15) Total                            48 (47)               48 (48)

0.167 (1.304)

0.683 (0.254)
7. Obese people are usually sociable BMK25kg/m2               36(42)               12(18) BMI >25 kg/m2               34(27)                14(8) Total                           70 (69)               26 (26)

0.211 (0.567)

0.646 (0.451)
8. Most obese people are not dissatisfied with themselves BMK25kg/m2               27 (29)               21 (31) BMI >25 kg/m2               27 (20)               21 (15) Total                            54 (49)               42 (46)

0.000 (0.687)

1.000 (0.407)
9. Obese people as just as self-confident as other people BMK25kg/m2               31 (39)               17 (21) BMI >25 kg/m2               25(24)               23(11) Total                           56 (63)               40 (32)

1.543 (0.126)

0.214 (0.722)

For men for Question 2 of Appendix A (Which body number best shows who you would LIKE to be?), students of normal weight separated significantly (p=0.045) from those who were overweight or obese using the Pearson Chi-squared procedure (Table 2.1.2a). ANOVA also showed statistically significant differences (pO.OOOl) and Power of 1.00 (Table 2.1.2b). The legend for Table 2.1.2b shows post-hoc findings. (The preferred figures, among both obese (Generic Zimulti is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) and normal weight male students, were 3 and 4.)

For women for Question 1 of Appendix A (body silhouettes, Which body number best shows who you ARE now?), students of normal weight separated significantly (p<0.001) from those who were overweight or obese using the Pearson Chi-squared procedure (Table 2.II.la). ANOVA also showed statistically significant differences (pO.OOOl) and Power of 1.00 (Table 2.II.lb). The legend for Table 2.II.lb shows post-hoc findings.

For women for Question 2 of Appendix A (Which body number best shows who you would LIKE to be?), students of normal weight separated significantly (p<0.001) from those who were overweight or obese using the Pearson Chi-squared procedure (Table 2.II.2a). ANOVA also showed statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) and Power of 1.00 (Table 2.II.2b). The legend for Table 2.II.2b shows post-hoc findings.

The questions on attitude toward obesity (Canadian Acomplia is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) did not separate using the BMI categorization of overweight or obese and normal weight when stratified by sex. That is, attitudes tended to be similar independent of weight and sex (Table 3).

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