
10Oct

Body Image and Attitude toward Obesity: RESULTS
There were 96 male students [mean age 20.2 ± (SD) 2.7 years] and 95 female students [mean age 20.2 ± (SD) 1.4 years]. Of these 191 students, 45 were freshman, 48 sophomores, 50 juniors and 48 seniors.
Table l(a,b,c). BMI Measurements by Sex
BMI measurement 
(kg/m2) 
Men (n=96)  Women (n=  95)  
Mean  26.026  24.660  
Standard error  0.5943  0.5159  
Upper 95% CI  27.206  25.685  
Lower 95% CI  24.846  23.636  
Range  16.13348.817  17.47339.931  
Table lb. BMI Measurements by Grade Level  
BMI measurement 
(kg/m2) 
Freshman (n=45) 
Sophomore (n=48)  Junior (n=50)  Senior (n=48)  
Mean 
25.265 
25.510  25.218  25.395  
Standard error 
0.7469 
0.9084  0.8064  0.7062  
Upper 95% CI 
26.771 
27.338  26.838  26.815  
Lower 95% CI 
23.760 
23.683  23.597  23.974  
Range 
18.02441.367 
16.13348.817  17.47343.451  17.(  P4436.978  
Table 1c. BMI Category by Sex  
Sex  <25 kg/m2  >25 kg/m2  Total  
Men 
48 
48  96  
Women 
60 
35  95 
The BMI determinations for the 96 male students was 26.0 ± [SEM] 0.6 kg/m^{2} and for the 95 female students 24.7 ± [SEM] 0.5 kg/m^{2} (Table la). By grade level, BMI measurements were freshman 25.3 ± 0.7 kg/m^{2} (n=45); sophomores 25.5 ± 0.9 kg/m^{2 }(n=48); juniors 25.2 ± 0.8 kg/m^{2} (n=50); and seniors 25.4 ± 0.7 kg/m^{2} (n=48) (Table lb). There were no significant differences in mean BMI measurements by sex or grade level (ANOVA). rimonabant weight loss
MALE student responses to silhouettes in Appendix A Question 1: Which body number best shows who you ARE now? Table 2.1.1a
Figure  BMI <25  BMI >25  Total 
1  2 
0 
2 
2  8 
0 
8 
со  30 
9 
39 
4  8 
21 
29 
5  0 
12 
12 
6  0 
2 
2 
7  0 
4 
4 
Pearson’s chi square value  = 45.135, df = 6, p value O.OOl 
Table 2.1.1b
Figure  Frequency  Mean Standard Error 
Lower 95% 
Upper 95%  
1  2  21.5608  2.5007 
16.592 
26.530 
2  8  20.9558  1.2503 
18.471 
23.440 
3  39  23.2053  0.5663 
22.080 
24.330 
4  29  26.4490  0.6567 
25.144 
27.754 
5  12  31.2077  1.0209 
29.179 
33.236 
6  2  37.7368  2.5007 
32.768 
42.706 
7  4  41.4440  1.7683 
37.931 
44.958 
Standard error uses a pooled estimate of error variance; The ANOVA shows an F(0.95; 6, 89) = 28.0960, with a Pvalue O.0001, and  
Power of 1.00.  
Comparison for all pairs using TukeyKramer HSD  
Abs(Dif)LSD  7  6 5  4 
3 1 
2 
7  7.5442  5.5325 4.0765  9.3045 
12.6373 10.6435 
13.9548 
6  5.5325  10.6691 1.6195  3.4879 
6.7964 5.5070 
8.3464 
5  4.0765  1.6195 4.3556  1.0966 
4.4804 1.4982 
5.3821 
4  9.3045  3.4879 1.0966  2.8018 
0.6276 2.9118 
1.2324 
CO  12.6373  6.7964 4.4804  0.6276 
2.4161 6.0907 
1.8915 
1  10.6435  5.5070 1.4982  2.9118 
6.0907 10.6691 
7.8297 
2  13.9548  8.3464 5.3821  1.2324 
1.8915 7.8297 
5.3345 
Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different.  
Comparison of mean BMI for all pairs using the TukeyKramer HSD procedure shows figures 6 and 7 were not different from each other  
but both were significantly different from figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. Figure 7 was also significantly difference from figure 5. Figures 1,2, and 3,  
were not different from each other. The mean BMI for figure 5 was significantly different from the mean BMI values for figures 1, 2, 3,  
and 4, but not with Figure 6. 
In separating BMI category (normal weight and overweight) by sex (Table lc), the men were evenly divided between these two groupings (n=48 for those men with BMI <25.0 kg/m^{2} and for those men with BMI >25.0 kg/m^{2}). Most women (63.2%) had BMI measurements <25 kg/m^{2} (normal weight). cheap phentrimine
FEMALE students responses to silhouettes in Appendix A Question 1: Which body number best shows who you ARE now? Table 2.11.1a.
Figure  BMI <25  BMI >25  Total 
10  5 
0 
5 
11  14 
0 
14 
12  33  CO 
36 
13  CO 
9 
17 
14  0 
14 
14 
15  0  CO 
8 
16  0 
1 
1 
Pearson’s Chisquared value=64.980, df=6, p value O.OOl 
Table 2.11.1b
Figure  Number  Mean 
Standard Error 
Lower 95%  Upper 95%  
10  5  18.4884 
1.0610 
16.380  20.597  
11  14  20.1721 
0.6340 
18.912  21.432  
12  36  22.6447 
0.3954 
21.859  23.430  
13  17  24.9797 
0.5754 
23.836  26.123  
14  14  29.8582 
0.6340 
28.598  31.118  
15  8  33.9032 
0.8388 
32.236  35.570  
16  1  38.7745 
2.3724 
34.060  43.489  
Standard error uses a pooled estimate of error variance; The oneway ANOVA shows an F(0.95; 6, 88)=55.7133, with a p value O.OOOl  
and Power of 1.00.  
Comparison for all pairs using TukeyKramer HSD  
Abs(Dif)LSD  16  15 
14 13 
12  11  10 
16  10.1243  2.7220 
1.5061 6.4283 
8.8722  11.1922  12.4438 
15  2.7220  3.5795 
0.8722 5.8542 
8.4604  10.5583  11.3336 
14  1.5061  0.8722 
2.7058 2.2948 
4.9587  6.9803  7.6401 
13  6.4283  5.8542 
2.2948 2.4555 
0.2283  2.2239  2.8492 
12  8.8722  8.4604 
4.9587 0.2283 
1.6874  0.2177  0.7395 
11  11.1922  10.5583 
6.9803 2.2239 
0.2177  2.7058  2.0461 
10  12.4438  11.3336 
7.6401 2.8492 
0.7395  2.0461  4.5277 
Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different; Comparison of mean BMI for all pairs using the TukeyKramer HSD  
procedure shows Figures 15 and 16 are not different from each other. Both are significantly different from Figures 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14.  
Figure 14 was significantly different from figures 10, 11, 12 and 13. Figure 13 was also different from figures 10, 11 and 12. Figures 10 and  
11 were not different from each other but both were significantly different from Figure 12. 
Of the 96 men, 48 were under age 20 years and of the 95 women, 46 were under age 20 years. We selected these subsets of our sample for further study because national norms were available (2000 CDC Growth Charts). Using the Nutstat module of Epi Info for students under age 20 years, mean BMI, BMI percentiles and zscores for the 48 men were 24.89 ± (SD) 5.50 kg/m^{2}, 60.75 ± (SD) 29.31, and 0.3236 ± (SD) 1.2046, respectively, and for the 46 women 25.32 ± 5.43 kg/m^{2}, 67.11 ± 27.15, and 0.5893 ± 0.9486, respectively. For these 48 men in a normal distribution, their mean zscore places them at the 62.69 BMI percentile. For these 46 women in a normal distribution, their mean zscore places them at the 72.31 BMI percentile.
Six (12.5%) of the 48 men under age 20 years had BMIs above the 95th percentile. Eight (17.4%) of the 46 women under age 20 years had BMIs about the 95th percentile. Thus, these 14 subjects were considered overweight using 2000 CDC nomenclature and obese (Acomplia canadian is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) using the American Academy of Pediatrics nosology.
FEMALE studentsQuestion 2: Which body number best shows who you would LIKE to be? Table 2.1.2a
Figure  BMI <25  BMI >25  Total 
1  2 
1 
со 
2  2 
4 
6 
3  21 
10 
31 
4  22 
26 
48 
5  1 
7 
8 
Pearson’s Chisquared value=9.737, df=4, p value=0.045 
Table 2.1.2b.
Figure  Number  Mean  Standard Error  Lower 95%  Upper 95% 
1  со  24.0047  2.6719  18.697 
29.312 
2  6  25.5445  1.8893  21.792 
29.297 
со  31  24.2874  0.8312  22.636 
25.938 
4  48  25.3441  0.6680  24.017 
26.671 
5  CO  37.9785  1.6362  34.728 
41.229 
Standard error uses a pooled estimate of error variance; The ANOVA shows an F(0.95; 4, 91) 
= 14.8551, with a p value O.0001 and 

Power of 1.00.  
Comparison for all pairs using TukeyKramer HSD  
Abs(Dif)LSD  5  2  4  3  1 
5  6.4401  5.4779  7.7158  8.5834 
5.2539 
2  5.4779  7.4364  5.3769  4.4876 
7.5679 
4  7.7158  5.3769  2.6292  1.9111 
6.3259 
3  8.5834  4.4876  1.9111  3.2716 
7.5052 
1  5.2539  7.5679  6.3259  7.5052 
10.5166 
Positive values show pairs of means that are significantly different; The TukeyKramer HSD procedure of multiple comparisons for all 

pairs shows mean BMI values for Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 were not different from each other. All four figures had mean BMI values that 

were significantly different from the mean BMI for Figure 5. 
For men for Question 1 of Appendix A (body silhouettes, Which body number best shows who you ARE now?), students of normal weight separated significantly (p<0.001) from those who were overweight or obese (The use of Hoodia tabletes as an appetite suppressant is supported by both colorful folklore history and recent scientific studies) using the Pearson Chisquared procedure (Table 2.1.1a). ANOVA also showed statisti cally significant differences (pO.OOOl) and Power of 1.00 (Table 2.1.1b). The legend for Table 2.1.1b shows posthoc findings.
Table 3. Responses to ObesityRelated Questions (Appendix B)
Responses were separated by sex and whether the BMI was < or >25 kg/m2. Female analyses appeal parentheses. All responses with positive integers (i.e., +3, +2, +1) were categorized as “aagree”. Responses with negative integers (i.e., 3, 2, 1) were categorized as “disagree”. The choice “0” was available. That is, we “forced” an “agree” or “disagree” response.  
Question Agree Disagree
/. Obese people are as happy as nonobese people BMI <25 kg/m2 31 (34) 17 (26) BMI >25 kg/m2 22(23) 26(12) Total 53 (57) 43 (38) 
ChiSquare 3.412 (0.754) 
P Value
0.065 (0.385) 
2. Most obese people feel they are not as good as other people BMK25kg/m2 25(43) 23(17) BMI >25 kg/m2 30(20) 18(15)
Total 55(63) 41(32) 1.064(2.087) 
0.302 (0.149)  
3. Most obese people are more selfconscious than other people BMK25kg/m2 32(47) 16(13) BMI >25 kg/m2 32(26) 16(9)
Total 64(73) 32(22) 0.000(0.204) 
1.000 (0.652)  
4. Obese workers cannot be as successful as other workers BMI <25 kg/m2 21 (14) 27 (46) BMI >25 kg/m2 14(10) 34(25) Total 35 (24) 61 (71) 
2.203 (0.321) 
0.138 (0.571) 
5. Most nonobese people would not want to marry anyone who is obese BMI <25 kg/m2 26 (33) 22 (27) BMI >25 kg/m2 28(20) 20(15)
Total 54(53) 42(42) 0.169(0.041) 
0.681 (0.839)  
6. Severely obese people are usually untidy BMI <25 kg/m2 25 (27) 23 (33) BMI >25 kg/m2 23(20) 25(15) Total 48 (47) 48 (48) 
0.167 (1.304) 
0.683 (0.254) 
7. Obese people are usually sociable BMK25kg/m2 36(42) 12(18) BMI >25 kg/m2 34(27) 14(8) Total 70 (69) 26 (26) 
0.211 (0.567) 
0.646 (0.451) 
8. Most obese people are not dissatisfied with themselves BMK25kg/m2 27 (29) 21 (31) BMI >25 kg/m2 27 (20) 21 (15) Total 54 (49) 42 (46) 
0.000 (0.687) 
1.000 (0.407) 
9. Obese people as just as selfconfident as other people BMK25kg/m2 31 (39) 17 (21) BMI >25 kg/m2 25(24) 23(11) Total 56 (63) 40 (32) 
1.543 (0.126) 
0.214 (0.722) 
For men for Question 2 of Appendix A (Which body number best shows who you would LIKE to be?), students of normal weight separated significantly (p=0.045) from those who were overweight or obese using the Pearson Chisquared procedure (Table 2.1.2a). ANOVA also showed statistically significant differences (pO.OOOl) and Power of 1.00 (Table 2.1.2b). The legend for Table 2.1.2b shows posthoc findings. (The preferred figures, among both obese (Generic Zimulti is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) and normal weight male students, were 3 and 4.)
For women for Question 1 of Appendix A (body silhouettes, Which body number best shows who you ARE now?), students of normal weight separated significantly (p<0.001) from those who were overweight or obese using the Pearson Chisquared procedure (Table 2.II.la). ANOVA also showed statistically significant differences (pO.OOOl) and Power of 1.00 (Table 2.II.lb). The legend for Table 2.II.lb shows posthoc findings.
For women for Question 2 of Appendix A (Which body number best shows who you would LIKE to be?), students of normal weight separated significantly (p<0.001) from those who were overweight or obese using the Pearson Chisquared procedure (Table 2.II.2a). ANOVA also showed statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) and Power of 1.00 (Table 2.II.2b). The legend for Table 2.II.2b shows posthoc findings.
The questions on attitude toward obesity (Canadian Acomplia is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) did not separate using the BMI categorization of overweight or obese and normal weight when stratified by sex. That is, attitudes tended to be similar independent of weight and sex (Table 3).