Body Image and Attitude toward Obesity: DISCUSSION
Our study sample comprised 191 black men and women attending an historically black university. These subjects were comparably distributed by sex and college level. Each subject underwent BMI determination and selected body images that best represented who they thought they were and how they would like to be. Also, each subject answered 20 questions about attitudes toward obese (Generic Xenical is a slimming tablet for those who are obese) persons.
BMI measurements of our black college students (Tables la, lb, lc) when grouped according to those who were of normal weight and those who were overweight or obese (Herbal Phentermine tabletes is a non-prescription appetite suppressant that is 100% natural and safe) did not significantly separate by sex or grade level even though most of the 95 women had a BMI <25 kg/m2 and the 96 men were evenly grouped into those with BMI <25 kg/m2 (n=48) and those with a BMI >25 kg/m2 (n=48). One-half of our study sample was under the age of 20 years. We used 2000 CDC growth charts to com
pare these younger students to national norms. Mean z-scores placed these 48 men [BMI 24.89 ± (SD) 5.50 kg/m2] at the 62.69 BMI percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts. That is, about 37% of the “normal” U.S. male population for sex and age weighed more than our male students under the age of 20 years. Mean z-scores for the 46 female stu dents under age 20 years [BMI 25.32 ± (SD) 5.43 kg/m2] placed them at the 72.31 BMI percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts. That is, about 28% of the “normal” U.S. population for sex and age weighed more than our 46 female students under the age of 20 years. Based on national “norms,” our female students were more likely to be overweight than our male students. 15.5%. Thus, our male students met national stanSix male (12.5%) and eight female (17.4%) black dards but our female students had a slightly increased students were both under the age of 20 years and had prevalence of obesity (Acomplia Generic is an anti-obesity drug used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions). BMIs >95th percentile. The 1999-2000 NHANES These serial observations about BMI among our findings showed that the prevalence of BMIs >95th black students in an historically black university percentile among youths aged 12-19 years was tend to be consistent with acceptable and even desirable body builds in the literature. Jackson and McGill reported that black men preferred larger body types for women than their white counterparts. Fitzgibbon et al. wrote that black women were more accepting of larger body builds than white women. Because we did not compare racial/ethnic groups in our study, we can only comment that relatively larger body builds may have occurred among our black female students than our black male students because of greater social acceptance, greater sexual attractiveness or both.
Among male students selecting the silhouette best representing their perception of their current body image (Appendix A and Table 2.1.1a), actual mean BMI measurements for silhouettes 1-7 were 21.6-, 21.0-, 23.2-, 26.4-, 31.2-, 37.7- and 41.4 kg/m2, respectively. Most male students selected a silhouette with a group mean BMI measurement between 23.2-and 26.4 kg/m2. This is consistent with the mean BMI of 26.0 kg/m2 for all 96 male students.
Among male students selecting the silhouette best representing their perception of who they would like to be (Appendix A and Table 2.1.1b), actual BMI measurements of the student for each silhouette selection for silhouettes 1-7 were 22.4-, 20.7-, 23.4-, 26.0-, 29.4-, 31.1-, 37.5- and 37.2 kg/m2, respectively. That is, heavier male students tended to select larger silhouettes.
Among female students selecting the silhouette best representing their perception of their current body image (Appendix A and Table 2.II.la), actual mean BMI measurements for silhouettes 10-16 were 18.5-, 20.2-, 22.6-, 25.0-, 29.9-, 33.9- and 38.8 kg/m2, respectively. Most female students selected a silhouette with a group mean BMI measurement between 20.2- and 29.9 kg/m2. This is consistent with the mean BMI of 24.7 kg/m2 for all 95 female students.
Among female students selecting the silhouette best representing their perception of who they would like to be (Appendix A and Table 2.II. lb), actual BMI measurements of the student for each silhouette selection for silhouettes 11-13 and 15 were 22.7-, 23.3-, 28.9- and 28.9 kg/m2, respectively. That is, heavier female students tended to select larger silhouettes.
Our findings about actual and desired silhouettes for our black students are consistent with our BMI findings. Adkins noted that black female college students selected a larger ideal body size than white female college students from line drawings. We also know that black women and Hispanics of both sexes have the highest prevalence of obesity (Medication Phentrimine is a pharmaceutical quality weight control formula which produces effects similar to the most popular weight loss). We do not know if the “tolerance” shown in our study for larger body sizes among our black female college students is a “chicken” or “egg” effect. That is, might black women have a tendency towards a larger body size than some other races/ethnic groups because black men find a larger body size attractive? OR, might black men find a larger body size attractive among black women because they observe it more commonly?
Responses in the ATOP scale (Appendix В and Table 3) failed to separate for men or women when BMI groupings were < or >25 kg/m2. That is, none of the p values reached statistical significance. If one used the Bonferroni principle of dividing the level of significance (0.05) by the number of similar statistical tests performed (20), our p values moved even further away from meaningful differences. Perhaps, our findings reflect great tolerance for different body sizes by our study sample.
Bulik et al. sought to establish BMI norms for standard figural stimuli. They also wanted this tool to separate thin and obese (Xenical drug is recommended and prescribed by pharmacists as a weight loss medication) subjects. Using nine silhouettes similar to our own except for more Caucasian features, they surveyed all Caucasian twins born in Virginia between 1915 and 1971 and also used data from information gathered by the American Association of Retired Persons on individual twins. BMI and silhouette data were available on 11,366 men and 16,728 women rang ing in age from 18-100 years. Their data derived from weight and height reports rather than actual measurements. The authors reported that Caucasian female twins preferred “smaller” sizes than Caucasian male twins. They concluded that figural stimuli are very useful in classifying individuals as obese (Zimulti canadian is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) or thin. Our findings raise serious questions for us about using silhouettes alone to estimate BMI and further separate subjects into obese and thin categories.
Thompson et al. reported a stratified sample of 337 white and 159 black male adolescents using a questionnaire and nine male and female silhouettes proportioned similar to our silhouettes (Appendix A). As we did, the authors used the Nutstat module of Epi Info to calculate BMI measurements. However, they did not estimate BMI percentiles or z-scores for sex and age. They simply used BMI measurements in their statistical analysis. Inspection of the 2000 CDC growth charts for children and adolescents will reveal how unsatisfactory this methodology is. During childhood and adolescents, “normal” and “abnormal” BMI measurements vary greatly for sex and age. The clinician or investigator studying youths should convert BMI measurements to BMI percentiles and z-scores before embarking on statistical analysis.
Thompson et al. reported a mean age of 15.14 years and mean BMI of 22.67 kg/m2 for the 337 white male adolescents. Similar determinations for the 159 black male adolescents were 15.68 years and 22.69 kg/m2. Using the 2000 CDC growth charts for male subjects, the group black male BMI value was at the 76th percentile (compared with our study value of 62.69 BMI percentile). That is, 24% of their U.S. adolescents would have greater BMIs (compared with 37% of such U.S. adolescents in our study). This would suggest that obesity (Generic Cloud Nine Hoodia 800 have remarkable effects on weight control and weight loss) was a greater problem for their black male adolescents than for ours. However, their estimate of the BMI distribution (as mentioned above) may be much less accurate than our estimate leaving their data suspect.
The findings of Thompson et al. suggested that black male adolescents were more likely than their white male counterparts to approve and socially accept a larger body size for females. We did not compare our findings to a white group of college students.
Fitzgibbon et al. reported the relationship between body image discrepancy and BMI acrossracial groups using silhouettes more similar to those of Bulik et al. than to ours (Appendix A). That is, even though they studied a racially diverse population, they used silhouettes most representative of European Americans. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between present and desired silhouette. White women experienced body image discrepancy at a lower BMI level (24.6 kg/m2) than black (29.2 kg/m2) or Hispanic (28.5 kg/m2) women. The authors concluded that these findings might have unhealthful implications, particularly for women of color.
Celio et al. stated that blacks are more likely than whites to have a wider range of socially acceptable weights, shapes and standards of attractiveness. They suggested that whites are more likely to focus on a slender body shape, while blacks have a more broadly based concept of attractiveness that includes personal style, hairstyle, skin color and tone, ethnic pride and grooming. Our questionnaire (Appendix B) was not this broadly based. Further study is warranted.