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  • Body Image and Attitude toward Obesity: APPROACH TO DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Measures

We measured each student’s height (inches) and weight (pounds). For students age 20 years and older, we calculated body mass index: BMI (kg/m2) = [weight (pounds) / height2 (inches2)] x 703. For students under the age of 20 years, we used the Nutstat module of Epilnfo to determine BMI, BMI percentile and BMI z-score.

Appendix A shows progressively more obese body images (silhouettes) of nine male figures and nine female figures. Each student selected the appropriate silhouette according to their perception of appropriate body image number for each of the two questions. The students received no further instructions for this appendix.
Appendix В asks 20 questions about attitudes toward obese (Xenical drug is recommended and prescribed by pharmacists as a weight loss medication) persons. We employed a Likert scale ranging from +3 to -3 and omitted the neutral response “0.” That is, we forced either an “agree” or “disagree” response. This ATOP scale appears in Allison’s Handbook of Assessment Methods for Eating Behaviors and Weight-Related Problems. Yuker et al. adapted the ATOP scale from an earlier book on attitudes towards disabled persons. This scale flowed from a premise that obese persons face a severe degree of social discrimination.

JMP 4.0 and SPSS Version 12 for Windows were used for all statistical analyses. The tables were created using Microsoft Excel 2000.

Descriptive Analysis
An initial descriptive analysis reporting on the BMI (mean, standard error of the mean, 95% CI and range) was performed on the data stratified by sex (Table la). Table lb shows the BMI measurements by grade level. buy phentrimine

Table l(a,b,c). BMI Measurements by Sex

BMI measurement

(kg/m2)

Men (n=96) Women (n= 95)
Mean 26.026 24.660
Standard error 0.5943 0.5159
Upper 95% CI 27.206 25.685
Lower 95% CI 24.846 23.636
Range 16.133-48.817 17.473-39.931
Table lb. BMI Measurements by Grade Level
BMI measurement

(kg/m2)

Freshman (n=45)

Sophomore (n=48) Junior (n=50) Senior (n=48)
Mean

25.265

25.510 25.218 25.395
Standard error

0.7469

0.9084 0.8064 0.7062
Upper 95% CI

26.771

27.338 26.838 26.815
Lower 95% CI

23.760

23.683 23.597 23.974
Range

18.024-41.367

16.133-48.817 17.473-43.451 17.( P44-36.978
Table 1c. BMI Category by Sex
Sex <25 kg/m2 >25 kg/m2 Total
Men

48

48 96
Women

60

35 95

Because a BMI >25 kg/m2 identifies adult subjects who are overweight, we used this value to separate our study sample into two groups (normal weight and overweight). Table lc shows BMI measurements for our subjects separated into those <25 kg/m2 (normal weight) and those >25 kg/m2 (overweight).

Strata Analysis
For responses related to body silhouettes (Appendix A and Questions 1 and 2), the analysis was done using two approaches. For each approach, male and female students were analyzed separately.

Table 3. Responses to Related Questions (Appendix B)

Responses were separated by sex and whether the BMI was < or >25 kg/m2. Female analyses appeal parentheses. All responses with positive integers (i.e., +3, +2, +1) were categorized as “aagree”. Responses with negative integers (i.e., -3, -2, -1) were categorized as “disagree”. The choice “0” was available. That is, we “forced” an “agree” or “disagree” response.
Question                     Agree             Disagree/. Obese people are as happy as nonobese people BMI <25 kg/m2               31 (34)               17 (26) BMI >25 kg/m2               22(23)               26(12) Total                           53 (57)               43 (38)

Chi-Square

3.412 (0.754)

P Value0.065 (0.385)
2. Most obese people feel they are not as good as other people BMK25kg/m2               25(43)               23(17) BMI >25 kg/m2               30(20)               18(15)Total                            55(63)               41(32)                  1.064(2.087) 0.302 (0.149)
3. Most obese people are more self-conscious than other people BMK25kg/m2               32(47)               16(13) BMI >25 kg/m2               32(26)                16(9)Total                            64(73)               32(22)                  0.000(0.204) 1.000 (0.652)
4. Obese workers cannot be as successful as other workers BMI <25 kg/m2               21 (14)               27 (46) BMI >25 kg/m2               14(10)               34(25) Total                           35 (24)               61 (71)

2.203 (0.321)

0.138 (0.571)
5. Most nonobese people would not want to marry anyone who is obese BMI <25 kg/m2               26 (33)               22 (27) BMI >25 kg/m2               28(20)               20(15)Total                            54(53)               42(42)                  0.169(0.041) 0.681 (0.839)
6. Severely obese people are usually untidy BMI <25 kg/m2               25 (27)               23 (33) BMI >25 kg/m2               23(20)               25(15) Total                            48 (47)               48 (48)

0.167 (1.304)

0.683 (0.254)
7. Obese people are usually sociable BMK25kg/m2               36(42)               12(18) BMI >25 kg/m2               34(27)                14(8) Total                           70 (69)               26 (26)

0.211 (0.567)

0.646 (0.451)
8. Most obese people are not dissatisfied with themselves BMK25kg/m2               27 (29)               21 (31) BMI >25 kg/m2               27 (20)               21 (15) Total                            54 (49)               42 (46)

0.000 (0.687)

1.000 (0.407)
9. Obese people as just as self-confident as other people BMK25kg/m2               31 (39)               17 (21) BMI >25 kg/m2               25(24)               23(11) Total                           56 (63)               40 (32)

1.543 (0.126)

0.214 (0.722)
10. Most people feel uncomfortable when they associate with obese people BMK25kg/m2               23(12)               25(48) BMI >25 kg/m2                15(8)               33(27)Total                           38 (20)               58 (75)                 2.788 (0.109) 0.095 (0.742)
11. Obese people are often less aggressive than nonobese people BMI <25 kg/m2               27 (25)               21 (35) BMI >25 kg/m2               18(16)               30(19)Total                            45(41)               51(54)                  3.388(0.148) 0.066 (0.701)
12. Most obese people have different personalities than nonobese people BMI <25 kg/m2               25 (25)               23 (35) BMI >25 kg/m2                22 (9)               26 (26)Total                            47(34)               49(61)                  0.375(2.448) 0.540 (0.118)
13. Very obese people are ashamed of their weight BMK25kg/m2               28(49)               20(11) BMI >25 kg/m2               34(28)                14(7) Total                           62(77)               34(18) 1.639 (0.040) 0.200 (0.842)
14. Most obese people resent normal weight people BMI <25 kg/m2               22 (35)               26 (25) BMI >25 kg/m2               26(22)               22(13) Total                           48 (57)               48 (38) 0.667 (0.188) 0.414 (0.664)
15. Obese people are more emotional than other people BMK25kg/m2               26(31)               22(29) BMI >25 kg/m2               28(17)               20(18) Total                            54 (48)               42 (47) 0.169 (0.085) 0.681 (0.771)
16. Obese people should not expect to lead normal lives BMK25kg/m2               18(13)               30(47) BMI >25 kg/m2               12(10)               36(25) Total                           30 (23)               66 (72) 1.745 (0.574) 0.186 (0.449)
17. Obese people are just as healthy as nonobese people BMK25kg/m2               21 (17)               27 (43) BMI >25 kg/m2               14(14)               34(21) Total                           35 (31)               61 (64) 2.203 (1.369) 0.138 (0.242)
18. Obese people are just as sexually attractive as nonobese people BMI <25 kg/m2               24 (26)               24 (34) BMI >25 kg/m2               22(17)               26(18)Total                            46(43)               50(52)                  0.167(0.245) 0.683 (0.621)
/9. Obese people tend to have family problems BMK25kg/m2                19(16)               29(44) BMI >25 kg/m2               17 (15)               31 (20) Total                           36(31)               60(64) 0.178 (2.636) 0.673 (0.104)
20. One of the worst things that could happen to a person would be for him/her to become obese BMI <25 kg/m2               24 (32)               24 (28) BMI >25 kg/m2               20(21)               28(14)Total                            44(53)               52(42)                  0.671(0.398)             0.413(0.528)

Method 1: Recoding of BMI into two categories: 1) overweight or obese (Zimulti canadian is used in the treatment of obesity and related conditions) and 2) normal weight and reporting on the frequencies for different body selections. We reported Pearson’s Chi-squared test of association for each table.

Method 2: In this approach, we conducted oneway ANOVA on the mean BMI for all the selected figures. The F-statistic, p values and Power analysis are reported for each table. To determine which of the responses had significantly different BMI values, we conducted a comparison using the Tukey-Kramer HSD procedure.

Appendix В. Attitudes Toward Obese Persons (ATOP) Scale

Harold E. Yuker, David B. Allison, Myles S. Faith “Methods for measuring attitudes and beliefs about obese people” in Handbook of
Assessment Methods for Eating Behaviors and Weight-Related Problems. Measures, Theory, and Research (David B. Allison, editor)
Sage Publications Thousand Oaks, CA, 1995. Adapted from Research With the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP)
1960-1985 by H.E. Yuker and J.R. Block, 1986, Hofstra University, Center for the Study of Attitudes Toward Persons With Disabilities,
Hempstead, NY.
Please mark each statement below in the left margin, according to how much you agree or disagree
with it. Please do not leave any blank. Write a +1, +2, +3, or -1, -2 or -3, according to the scale below.
Agree                                                        Disagree
+3 = 1 strongly agree                                       -1=1 slightly disagree
+2 = 1 moderately agree                                   -2 =1 moderately disagree
+ 1 = 1 slightly agree                                         -3 = 1 strongly disagree
1. Obese people are as happy as nonobese people.
2. Most obese people feel that they are not as good as other people.
3 Most obese people are more self-conscious than other people.
4. Obese workers cannot be as successful as other workers.
5. Most nonobese people would not want to marry anyone who is obese.
6. Severely obese people are usually untidy.
7. Obese people are usually sociable.
8. Most obese people are not dissatisfied with themselves.
9. Obese people are just as self-confident as other people.
10. Most people feel uncomfortable when they associate with obese people.
11. Obese people are often less aggressive than nonobese people.
12. Most obese people have different personalities than nonobese people.
13. Very obese people are ashamed of their weight.
14. Most obese people resent normal weight people.
15. Obese people are more emotional than other people.
16. Obese people should not expect to lead normal lives.
17. Obese people are just as healthy as nonobese people.
18. Obese people are just as sexually attractive as nonobese people.
19. Obese people tend to have family problems.
20. One of the worst things that could happen to a person would be for her/him to become obese.

Appendix В lists the 20 questions we used to assess attitudes toward obese persons. All responses with positive integers (i.e., +3, +2, +1) were categorized as”agree”, and responses with negative integers (i.e., -3, -2,-1) were categorized as “disagree.” Using the BMI categorization of overweight or obese (Generic Cloud Nine Hoodia 800 have remarkable effects on weight control and weight loss) and normal weight, and a stratification of the sexes into males and females, a Chi-squared test of association was conducted on the responses to each question (Table 3).

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